Fields Virology 2 Volume Set - AbeBooks
Hepatitis B virus is a member of the Hepadnaviridae family and responsible for causing acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The current estimates of people chronically infected with the virus are put at 250 million worldwide. Immune-mediated liver damage in these individuals may lead to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma later in life. This review deals with our current understanding of the virology, molecular biology, life cycle and cell-to-cell spread of this very important pathogen, all of which are considered essential for current and future approaches to antiviral treatment.
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The release of the results from the phase III efficacy trial sponsored by Merck, HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) and the NIAID-NIH has shattered the community of scientists engaged in the field of HIV vaccine. The STEP vaccine trial (also referred to as HVTN 502 or Merck V520-023) relied on recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAD5) as a vaccine vector to induce a strong anti-HIV T-cell immunity. The trial included three rAD5 vectors expressing gag, pol or nef coding sequences and was expected to either prevent vaccinees from HIV infection, or to reduce significantly the plasma viral loads at post-infection set point. The STEP study enrolled 3,000 volunteers at sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Peru, Puerto Rico and the United States. The first set of results, released in September 2007, showed no protection from infection in rAD5-gag, rAD5pol and rAD5nef vaccinated individuals; surprisingly, the vaccinated cohort showed an increased number of new infections compared with the control group . In fact, an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) found 24 cases of HIV infection among the 741 volunteers who received at least one dose of the investigational vaccine compared with 21 cases of HIV infection among the 762 volunteers who were vaccinated with placebo. In volunteers who received at least two vaccinations, the DSMB found 19 cases of HIV infection among the 672 volunteers who received the investigational vaccine and 11 instances of HIV infection among the 691 subjects who received the placebo. Surprisingly, the STEP results underscored that people who got the vaccine were more likely to get infected with HIV. Moreover, the increased susceptibility to HIV was preeminent in subjects with pre-existing immunity (antibodies) to adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) (Table 1). As a consequence, enrollments and vaccinations were discontinued. It is noteworthy that the STEP trial was stopped before completing the immunizations in most of the volunteers and that the reported infections occurred in subjects with incomplete vaccine regimen, thus precluding a fair evaluation of the vaccine protection. In addition, the control groups were not inoculated with empty vector and do not act as true controls to evaluate the potential enhancement of infection. Nevertheless, the available results do suggest that multiple immunizations with a single immunogenic vector may stimulate a harmful anamnestic response.
Paste the article title into the search box, or enter citation details such as the author, journal name and the year the article was published in the search box and the PubMed citation sensor will automatically analyze your query for citation information to return the correct citation. The citation sensor incorporates a fuzzy matching algorithm and will retrieve the best match even if a search includes an incorrect term. You do not need to use field tags or Boolean operators.
Using the Cite button for an item will open a pop-up window where you can copy the citation formatted in four popular styles: AMA (American Medical Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), APA (American Psychological Association), or NLM (National Library of Medicine). You can also download the citation as an .nbib file, which most bibliographic reference management software can import.
Once a year, NLM releases a complete (baseline) set of PubMed citation records in XML format for download from our FTP servers. Incremental update files are released daily and include new, revised, and deleted citations. The PubMed DTD states any changes to the structure and allowed elements from year to year.
Tools included on the Advanced Search page help users to: search for terms in a specific field, combine searches and build large, complex search strings, see how each query was translated by PubMed, and compare number of results for different queries.
The Advanced Search Builder includes the Show Index feature, which provides an alphabetical display of terms appearing in selected PubMed search fields. You can browse by all fields or within specific fields such as MeSH Terms.
E-utilities are tools that provide access to data outside of the regular NCBI web search interface. This may be helpful for retrieving search results for use in another environment. If you are interested in large-scale data mining on PubMed data, you may download the data for free from our FTP server. Please see the terms and conditions for data users.
method=field runs a fielded search using core bibliographic information, such as journal, date, or volume. This functionality is similar to E-utilities ESearch; users should select the API that best suits their needs.
If a match is found in this translation table, the term will be searched as MeSH (that includes the MeSH term and any specific terms indented under that term in the MeSH hierarchy), and in all fields.
If you enter an entry term for a MeSH term the translation will also include an all fields search for the MeSH term associated with the entry term. For example, a search for odontalgia will translate to: "toothache"[MeSH Terms] OR "toothache"[All Fields] OR "odontalgia"[All Fields] OR "odontalgias"[All Fields] because Odontalgia is an entry term for the MeSH term toothache.
These will automatically map to the journal abbreviation that is used to search journals in PubMed and in all fields. For example, a search for endocrine pathology will translate to: "Endocr Pathol"[Journal] OR ("endocrine"[All Fields] AND "pathology"[All Fields]) OR "endocrine pathology"[All Fields]
When a search includes terms that were tagged with a search field during the automatic term mapping process and retrieves zero results, the system triggers a subsequent search using "Schema: all ." "Schema: all" modifies the search by removing the automatically added search field tags, and then searches each term in all fields.
The PubMed Format tags table defines the data tags that compose the PubMed format. The tags are presented in alphabetical order. Some of the tags (e.g., CIN) are not mandatory and therefore will not be found in every record. Other tags (e.g., AU, MH, and RN) may occur multiple times in one record. You can download records in PubMed format as a text file (.txt) or as an .nbib file for exporting into citation management software programs.
This documentation describes the fields found in PubMed records. If a field is searchable, the search tag appears after the field name in square brackets: Affiliation [ad]. A small number of searchable fields do not correspond to a specific field in the PubMed format.
Untagged terms and terms tagged with [all] are processed using Automatic Term Mapping (ATM). Terms that do not map are searched in all search fields except for Place of Publication, Create Date, Completion Date, Entry Date, MeSH Date, and Modification Date. Terms enclosed in double quotes or truncated will be searched in all fields and not processed using automatic term mapping. PubMed ignores stopwords.
The format to search for this field is: last name followed by a space and up to the first two initials followed by a space and a suffix abbreviation, if applicable, all without periods or a comma after the last name (e.g., fauci as or o'brien jc jr). Initials and suffixes may be omitted when searching.
The author identifier includes a unique identifier associated with an author, corporate or investigator name, if supplied by a publisher. The field includes the organization authority that established the unique identifier, such as, ORCID, ISNI, VIAF, e.g., orcid 0000-0001-5027-4446 [auid].
The data in these fields are citations to other associated journal publications, e.g., comments or errata. Often these link to the respective citation. Comments/Corrections data can be retrieved by the search term that follows each type:
Note: Citations indexed pre-2000 and some citations indexed in 2000-2001 retain corporate authors at the end of the title field. For comprehensive searches, consider including terms and/or words searched in the title field [ti].
The grant number search field includes research grant numbers, contract numbers, or both that designate financial support by agencies of the US PHS (Public Health Service), and other national or international funding sources. The four parts of the grant data are:
The journal search field includes the journal title abbreviation, full journal title, or ISSN/eISSN number (e.g., J Biol Chem, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 0021-9258). If a journal title contains special characters, e.g., parentheses, brackets, enter the name without these characters, e.g., enter J Hand Surg [Am] as J Hand Surg Am.
The language search field includes the language in which the article was published. Note that many non-English articles have English language abstracts. You may search using either the language or the first three characters of most languages, e.g., chi [la] retrieves the same results as chinese [la]. The most notable exception is jpn [la] for Japanese.
The author keyword field (OT field) is searchable with the title/abstract [tiab], text word [tw] and other term [ot] search tags. To retrieve all citations that have keywords, use the query haskeyword. Other term data may display an asterisk to indicate a major concept; however, you cannot search other terms with a major concept tag.